Cognitive enhancement is the use of neuroactive substances to improve cognitive ability. Enhancement can also be achived by protecting the neuronal infrastructure of the brain. the so-called, neuroprotective efffect.
Adderall has been used for over a decade by college and now high school students. Unlike the destructive methamphetamines, Adderall is used to feel and do well.
Antipsychotic drugs, proven for the treatments of attention deficit disorders have too many side effects to be valuable as a nootropic drug. There are other products that are safer.
There are a slew of cholinesterase inhibitors, neuropeptides, antioxidants, and glycinergic prodrugs that are availble as nootropic agents. Drugs that improve cognition.
Nootropics are small molecules that affect nerve transmissions. Panax ginseng and ginkgo biloba are two herbal sources or nutraceuticals that act as cognitive enhancers.The syntheic group or nootropic drugs were developed to treat cognition deficits. That''s why they were invented. These deficits or dysfunctions occurs in diseases like Alzheimer''s, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders and aging. Some are due to normal biological stressor and the generation of free oxygen radicals. Obviously, an antioxidant supplement including the antioxidant vitamins C and E is probably a good idea. Cognition refers the ability of the brain to process and apply information. This information is transmitted via nerve transmissions to the memory, attention, perception and language centers of the brain. The speed, depth and accuracy of the transmissions is a reflection of the synaptic health of the individual and how effective they are in memory and learnng.
Nootropics were first reported in 1972 when the memory enhancing properties of piracetam was first observed in clinical trials.
Since then, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in trials andl experiments. Some will become pharmaceutical drugs, prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. They are regulated and controlled.
Nootropics are divided based on their mechanism of action.
These drugs interact with a slew of receptors, enzymes and nerve growth factors. They also interact with re-uptake transporters, ion-channel agents and antioxidants. The goal of nootropic drugs is to enhance the transmission of impulses and delay their deterioation.
Less predictable are the way these drugs affect disease-modifying drugs like, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, amyloid-β and tau.
Drugs without a known mechanism of actions are grouped according to their structure.
Combined, nootropic drugs form a cerebral coctail. These drugs or stacks as they are known are very popular among healthy individals because they improve cognitive function.
The nootropic community is small but growing rapidly. Many blog about it and certsin stacks have become part of the daily roundup.
Cerbral enhancement is based on improving nerve transmissions by extending the duration of transmissions.
Athletic enhancement is cheating in the sports world and is banned. Cerebral enhancement isn''t.
The basis for these products lies in the fact that learning and memory disorders are neurodegenerative diseases. Prevent degeneration to improve transmissions. Its very simple for those with illnesses, they need to get better. But the healthy have a different set of needs. They want to improve cognition and get smarter.
They want to pass exams, learn a language or prepare a report. These drugs help them do that.
Like the bodybuilders who stacked steroids to gain strength and muscle, those interested in nootropic products have to resort to out of mainstream sources. This leads to questions of quality and whether there is any control over the manufacture and distribution of nootropic compounds.
Once the biochemical and physiological basis of these problems became understood, compounds were invented that was found to delay disease. And since alteration in neurotransmission is consistently found in people with cognitive disorders, it was assumed that a healthy functioning person would benefit from taking these same compounds.
Therapeutic strategies increase the concentration of neurotransmitters with cholinergic agents, biogenic amines and neuropeptides that are the agents involved in learning. These modulators of brain activity include the arsenal of psychostimulants, excitatory amino acids and nootropic drugs that are sold online or prescribed by doctors.
Theanine or gamma-glutamylethylamide
L-Theanine is found in green, unfermented tea. L-theanine can cross the blood-brain barrier, therebye allowing it access to the synaptic maze of the brain In essence L-theanine acts as a psychoactive substance.
L-theanine raises dopamine and serotonin levels and stimulates AMPA, Kainate, and NMDA receptors. L-theanine also increases activity of GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) receptors and neurotransmitters. L-theanine is synergistic with caffeine.
L-Theanine is synergistic with caffeine to promote short-term memory and improve accuracy. It also results in faster reaction time and better visual processing while decreasing mental fatigue.
It has been over three decades have since the discovery of the first piracetam-like nootropic drugs. These are compounds which exhibit cognition-enhancing ability for which no mechanism of action has been attributed.
Piracetam is a nootropic whose chemical structure is modified to form a library of similar nootropic drugs. All having similar actions and activities.
There are a dozen or so members in the Racetam library.
Piracetam is thought to increase cognition in mentally healthy individuals. That''s the purpose of all nootropic drugs.
Another nootropic drug is CDPCholine. Its use is based on its effect of acetylcholine. acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that operates everywhere. When brain levels of choline are low, dysfunction occurs.
Some nootropics are based on increasing blood levels of choline. Others focus on preventing choline breakdown or supplementing with a choline deliverer like CDPCholine.
CDPCholine is taken with racetam drugs as a precaution against low choline levels. Racetam drugs seem to deplete the brain''s store of choline.
Pyritinol is another nootropic agent. It consists of two vitamin B6 molecules joined together. It’s structure enables it to easily cross the blood-brain barrier. Pyritinol is reputed to promote energy, wakefulness, and concentration.