Piracetam

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 Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide) is a cyclic derivative of GABA and may improve the transmissions of acetycholine.

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Very little data exists to support piracetam''s proposed effect on healthy people.  Most studies focused on the ill with their seizures, dementia, and concussions. Easy to measure and observe.  

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From wiki

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A two-week regimen of piracetam was reported in 1976 to enhance verbal memory in healthy college students in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.[2]

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Numerous positive individual studies supported the use of piracetam in people suffering from a wide range of cognitive disorders,[3][4]

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A 2002 meta-analysis by UCB, S.A. concluded that piracetam had a therapeutic effect in older patients with cognitive impairment.[5]

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In 2008, a working group of the British Academy of Medical Sciences noted that many of the clinical trials of piracetam for dementia were methodologically flawed.[6][7]

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Several meta-reviews of literature on piracetam indicate that piracetam increases performance on a variety of cognitive tasks among dyslexic children, though this may reflect its enhancement of cross-hemispheric communication and of cognitive function in general, rather than a specific improvement in whatever causes dyslexia.

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Piracetam also seems to inhibit brain damage caused by a variety of factors including hypoxia and excessive alcohol consumption.[8][9]

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Piracetam has been studied in an extensive number of clinical experiments, and has shown positive results in the treatment of post-stroke aphasiaepilepsy, cognitive decline following heart and brain surgery, dementia,[5] and myoclonus.[10][11] Its peripheral vascular effect has indicated its use for vertigo, dyslexia and, at one time, sickle cell anemia as well,[3] but a subsequent Cochrane review of the evidence found that it did not support piracetam''s use in sickle cell crisis prevention.[12]

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Piracetam possesses pronounced antihypoxic and antiarrhythmic effect; the latter is carried out by decreasing the rhythm rate and increasing the contraction amplitude. The animals treated with piracetam in a dose when its antiarrhythmic effects (300 mg/kg) exhibited a decrease of the membrane potential of erythrocytes as compared with control. Similar effects occurred in the animals treated with lidocaine. It can be concluded that in certain types of arrhythmias the use of piracetam restores the normal rhythm of contractions that is perhaps connected with its positive influence on metabolic processes in the myocardium.[13]

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Piracetam appeared in animal studies to have increased communication between the two hemispheres of the brain and increased activity of the corpus callosum.

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(2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). Piracetam is chemically related to the amino acid pyroglutamic acid, which is found in cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in cognitive functioning. Piracetam is thought to enhance brain metabolism by increasing glucose utilization and blood flow. 

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Piracetam increases the phospholipid levels in the brain, which increases membrane fuidity and supports healthy neuron communications.  Piracetam supports cognitive receptors (By amplifying the density of the Muscarinic Cholinergic {Frontal Cortex, Striatum, & Hippocampus}, NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) {Hippocampus}, & AMPA (Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazole-Propionic Acid) Cerebral Cortex Receptors {Strengthens neurotransmitter receptors involved in memory and neuroprotection}

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Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) {Involved in speech and creative thinking}.

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Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) {Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory}

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Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (By increasing Red-White blood cells & Platelet deformability, inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthetase or antagonism of thromboxane A2, reducing von Willebrand''s factor & fibrinogen levels) {Supports Healthy Blood Flow}.

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Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) {Positively effects Neuro-Electrical Functioning}.

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Has a significant antioxidant effect.

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Piracetam positively supports healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action.

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Aniracetam

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Aniracetam (1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam.

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Biochemical Effects
Similar to Piracetam, but due to its fat solubility its effects last longer and is far more potent.

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Helps increase communication between your left and right sides of the brain, resulting in improved creatively, perception, and more.

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Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than Piracetam, resulting in better focus and concentration.

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Been reported to be best ‘cetam for anti-anxiety effects

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Dose
750-1500 mg Daily with meals

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When can I feel it?
Works within an hour to a few days.

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[top]Oxiracetam

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(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide) is a potent fast acting water soluble analog of Piracetam. Works faster than all other racetams.

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Biochemical Effects
Similar to Piracetam, but much stronger than Aniracetam and far faster acting. The preferred premium Nootropic for the elite smart drug user.

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Supports multiple aspects of Cognition

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Boosts Brain ATP levels (Mental Energy)

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Increase Choline Acetylcholinetranferase the neuro-enzyme that creates Acetylcholine (in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum) {Memory Support}

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Dose
800-1600 mg Daily

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When can I feel it?
Works within an hour to a few days.

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[top]Pramiracetam

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Pramiracetam (N-{2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl}-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine-acetamide) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam, the most potent Racetam compound being about 15 times stronger than Piracetam.

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