Coffee Berries

 

Coffea trees are one of the world’s most valued plants. 

Coffee trees are limited to subtropical and tropical climates because they are unable to tolerate freezing. 

The berries on the trees contain two beans. Using these seeds, coffee drinking began in the Mid-East and made its way to Italy by the seventeenth century.

Coffee beans are seeds of fruit. 

Several species of bushes in the genus of Coffea and memebers of the family Rubiaceae produce this fruit .

90% of the world’s production of coffee comes from Coffea arabica trees. The remaining 10& from C. canephora (robusta).

Coffee berries are picked, processed, dried, ground and brewed to create the beverage.of coffee.

Each berry contains two seeds that are roasted to achieve the desired flavor.

Beans are then ground and brewed (infused with water) to create the beverage

The purpose of the ritual is to release caffeine and release the flavor molecules of the bean.

Caffeine is the prized member of the fruit's molecular library.

Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, colas and chocolates . 

Caffeine is also found in other plants like Guarana.

Comparison of gene sequences in each of the aforementioned plants indicates that they each evolved in their own unique way and not from a common ancestor.

They evolved into plants that synthesize caffeine.

For the plant, caffeine not only killed off predators and competitors but also enhanced pollination by giving a buzz to the insect.

For humans, caffeine provides an array of benefits.

In a beverage, it gives the world a wake-up call.

Caffeine is believed to help prevent Parkinson’s disease, a disease marked by low or damaged dopamine levels.

Caffeine belongs to a class of compounds called xanthines.

The library of compounds produced in coffee berries, are predominantly one of a group of xanthines.

The xantines originate from a precursor compound called xanthosine.

Xanthosine is the subject of a research study that sheds light on the mechanism Nature employs to create new compounds.

Utilizing gene sequencing,

Adenosine, another xanthine, functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain.

When adenosine receptors are blocked such as what happens when caffeine binds to  them, dopamine concentration increases.

Caffeine itself is a cell stimulant, unique in and of itself because it acts on the nerve cell itself and not the synapse.

Caffeine is a powerful stimulant of nerve tissue especially the cerebral cortex.

The pharmacological and behavioral effects of caffeine include wakefulness, increased mental alertness, faster and clearer flow of thoughts and restlessness.

Additionally, caffeine exerts a stimulating effect on the heart, resulting in an increase in cardiac output and an increased heart rate.

Pharmacology

Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, promotes adrenaline release and increases diuresis. Caffeine also increases free fatty acid levels by stimulating the lipolysis of adipose tissue. Lipolysis allows for the deployment of fats stores in the production of energy, thereby providing the fuel required in endurance exercise. In none endurance settings, fatty acids are hardly ever metabolized as fuel. Carbohydrate is the predominant nutrient used to fuel exercise.

Sports Advantages

Caffeine consumption delays the onset of exhaustion and increases the amount of total work performed during exercise.One reason for this involves an increase in fat metabolism in muscle with the consequence of sparing of glycogen stores. The longer glycogen stores in the liver and muscle remain, available the easier glucose can become available. When glucose is unavailable, exercise becomes terminated as fatigue sets in.

Caffeine acts as a diuretic by causing the dilation of blood vessels within the kidney. Caffeine loading is very popular among athletes, with some professional teams providing black coffee during training. However, large excessive consumption of caffeine can lead to insomnia, cardiac arrhythmia, gastric upset and polyuria.

Green coffee bean extracts are now being marketed as green coffee supplements that burn fat.