Glycosaminoglycans are made up of subunits known as proteoglycans.
Proteoglycans are an integral part of collagen as well as all connective tissues.
Proteoglycans are the filler compounds in the matrix of collagen, the protein component of bone, ligaments and tendons.
Glycosaminoglycan, proteoglycan and glucosamine, can be considered interchangeable terms although glucosamine is actually the essential precursor for proteoglycans, the subunit that glycosaminoglycans are made up of.
Glucosamine availability is the limiting factor in the production of proteoglycans.
Glycosaminoglycan production and use is accelerated during fractures, injuries, wound healing and arthritis.
Glycosaminoglycans are necessary for proper joint function and as a component of collagen, are an integral part of ligaments, tendons, and heart valves.
Glycosaminoglycans are responsible for the tensile strength of collagen.
Collagen strength and elasticity is improved by glucosamine, which owing to their negative charge attracts and holds water molecules.
The resulting stiff gel contributes to the resiliency and shock-absorbing strength of joints as well as the lubricating properties demonstrated in the eye.
Glycosaminoglycans are also found in vascular smooth muscle cells.
They contribute to an anti-coagulated, non-stick surface.
This minimizes the adhesion of oxidized LDL-cholesterol (truly lousy cholesterol) to blood vessel walls.
Normal cell function is controlled by its membrane binding sites.
Glucosamine is one component of the cell membrane recognition and confirmation theory that envisions the cell membrane as the absolute regulator of the immune system, healing and growth.
These binding sites are composed of proteins and aminosugars.