Omega-3 fats reduces the production of inflammatory compounds as well as suppressing appetite and  burning stored fat. In addition, increased levels of Omega-3 fats impart a renewed radiance and firmness in skin.  Omega-3 supplements are essential to lipid replenishment for those with dry skin. Omega 3 fats ydrate dry skin from the inside out.

Omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet function and possess strong anti-inflammatory activity.

Omega-3 fatty acids supplements has been shown to positively affect the synthesis and clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition, Japanese researchers reported that children found deficient in eicopentenoic and docosahexenoic acids (omega-3s), were unable to maintain the levels of physical conditioning previously deemed acceptable and adequate for prior generations. Omega-3 fatty acids had traditionally been found in high concentration among the Japanese population due to their emphasis of fish in the diet. Since Japanese children now remove the skin from the fish, (most of the oils are stored in the skin), they no longer maintain the high levels of omega-3s found in previous generations.

Omega- 3 fatty acids are present in high concentration in mother’s milk, and were deficient in infant formulas before 2001. Omega-3 fatty acids are now added to infant formulas. Eicopentenoic and docosahexenoic acids are essential for proper brain development in newborns. The previous two statements may account for a recent New Zealand study that concluded, “the longer infants were breast fed, the higher they scored on intelligence tests”.

Joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilage and even bone are made up of the protein, collagen.

 

 

Collagen is a resilient and strong protein, whose structure determines joint, tendon and bone health.

 

 

When collagen is weak, brittle or soft it causes dysfunction and susceptible to the inflammatory process, which defines arthritis.

This weakness is due to the loss of proteoglycans in collagen.

 

 

Cartilage is a strong and flexible material due to the presence of collagen.

When cartilage is situated between two bones it is known as articular cartilage.

Articular cartilage is the material that covers the heads of bones in a joint and prevents them from rubbing against each other.

It is also the site of wear and tear erosion.

 

The primary protein of the cartilage matrix is collagen.

 

Collagen fibrils are bathed in a ground substance of chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and core proteins to form proteoglycans.

 

Proteoglycans contain high molecular-weight polymers of modified and sulfated sugars.
Other glycoproteins cross-link the collagen fibrils providing strength to the overall tissue.

 

 

The study of these compounds and their effect on health is known as glycomics or glycobiology.

 

 

The matrix of collagen is is made up of glycosaminoglycans. 

 

Glycosaminoglycans promote the ability of collagen fibrers to retain water and bind moisture into the stratum corneum of the epidermis.

 

 

 

Collagen, as the major protein of connective tissues, can be compared to a sponge because of its ability to trap water.

As collagen ages, the fibers aggregate into larger collagen bundles and become less soluble.

The less soluble collagen is, the less water it retains. 

This condition, plus the addition of calcium deposits that occur with aging, actually squeeze water out of collagen and cause shrinking of collagen.

This results is a loss of skin turgor and the formation of wrinkles.

 

 

As collagen forms, glycosaminoglycans become bound to the peptide chains of collagen.

This binding promotes the ability of collagen to retain water by keeping the collagen fibers separated.

Glycosaminoglycans ensures a replacement of the diminishing amounts in the skin, and results in skin that has more moisture and increased flexibility.

Resveratrol (resorcinol) is the polyphenol found in wine. It is a powerful antioxidant synthesized and stored in the skin of the red grape

 

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin.

Vitamin A is derived from two sources, the preformed retinoids and the provitamin carotenoids.

 

Retinoids, (retinal and retinoic acid) are found in animal sources like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy produce. Carotenoids (beta-carotene) on the other hand, are found in plants like dark or yellow vegetables and carrots.

Retinoids are present in all living organisms, either as preformed vitamin A or as one of the carotenoids. Retinoids are required for vision and cellular growth. A major biologic function of vitamin A (as the metabolite retinal) is in the visual cycle. 

From wikipedia

"Retinol is one of the animal forms of vitamin A. It is a diterpenoid and an alcohol. It is convertible to other forms of vitamin A, and the retinyl ester derivative of the alcohol serves as the storage form of the vitamin in animals.

When converted to the retinal (retinaldehyde) form, vitamin A is essential for vision, and when converted to retinoic acid, is essential for skin health, teethremineralization and bone growth. These chemical compounds are collectively known as retinoids, and possess the structural motif of all-trans retinol as a common feature in their structure. Structurally, all retinoids also possess a β-ionone ring and a polyunsaturated side chain, with either an alcohol, aldehyde, acarboxylic acid group or an ester group. The side chain is composed of four isoprenoid units, with a series of conjugated double bonds which may exist in trans- or cis-configuration.[1]
Retinol is produced in the body from the hydrolysis of retinyl esters, and from the reduction of retinal. Retinol in turn is ingested in a precursor form; animal sources (liver and eggs) contain retinyl esters, whereas plants (carrots, spinach) contain pro-vitamin A carotenoids (these may also be considered simply vitamin A). Hydrolysis of retinyl esters results in retinol, while pro-vitamin A carotenoids can be cleaved to produce retinal by carotene dioxygenase in the intestinal mucosa. Retinal, also known as retinaldehyde, can be reversibly reduced to produce retinol or it can be irreversibly oxidized to produce retinoic acid, which then cannot function as the vitamin in the eye."

 Dimethylethanolamine or DMAE is best known as an oral cognitive supplement. Dr. Perricone, dermatologist to celebrities, claims that it has a great effect on skin. His topical creams include DMAE and are said to aid in tightening the muscles that keep the skin looking healthy. It is also claimed to diminish the appearance of wrinkles, crows feet, and sagging skin.

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is an antioxidant and considered by Dr. Perricone as a membrane stabilizer. According to Dr. Perricone, when DMAE is taken orally or applied topically, it helps to firm, smoothe, and brighten skin. It also enhances the effects of other antioxidants like alpha lipoic acid and Vitamin C ester.

Wikipedia staes

"Dimethylaminoethanol is related to choline and may be a biochemical precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, although this conclusion has been disputed.[4] It is believed that dimethylaminoethanol is methylated to produce choline in the brain.[4] It is known that dimethylaminoethanol is processed by the liver into choline; however, the choline molecule is charged and cannot pass the blood–brain barrier."

Glycosaminoglycans are the main component of collagen. They are made up of subunits known as proteoglycans.

 

 

Proteoglycans are an integral part of collagen as well as all connective tissues.

 

Proteoglycans are the filler material between cells in the matrix of collagen, the protein component of bone, ligaments and tendons.

 

Glycosaminoglycans are also found in the shell of eggs, giving eggs another way they improve the look and feel of skin.

 

Proteoglycans are are bound to each other, to the protein of collagen and in the case of articular cartilage, they are bound to hyaluronan, the major component of synovial fluid and the extracellular coat of cartilage cells.

 

Glycosaminoglycan, proteoglycan and glucosamine, can be considered interchangeable terms although glucosamine is actually the essential precursor for proteoglycans, the subunit that glycosaminoglycans are made up of.

 

 

Glucosamine availability is the limiting factor in the production of proteoglycans. Glycosaminoglycan production and utilization is accelerated during fractures, injuries, wound healing and arthritis.

 

Glycosaminoglycans are necessary for proper joint function and as a component of collagen, are an integral part of ligaments, tendons,and heart valves.

 

Glycosaminoglycans are responsible for the tensile strength of collagen.

The collagen matrix is the material that stabilizes skin.

The matrix itself is made up of glycosaminoglycans.

Glycosaminoglycans promote the ability of collagen fibrers to retain water and bind moisture into the stratum corneum of the epidermis.

 

 

Collagen, as the major protein of connective tissue, can be compared to a sponge because of its ability to trap water. As collagen ages, the fibers aggregate into larger collagen bundles and become less soluble. The less soluble collagen is, the less water it retains. This condition, plus the addition of calcium deposits that occur with aging, actually squeeze water out of collagen and cause shrinking of collagen. This results is a loss of skin turgor and the formation of wrinkles.

When collagen forms, glycosaminoglycans become bound to the peptide chains of collagen. This binding promotes the ability of collagen to retain water by keeping the collagen fibers separated.

Glycosaminoglycans, when applied topically ensure the replacement of the diminishing amounts in the skin and results in skin that has more moisture and increased flexibility.

Collagen strength and elasticity is also improved by glucosamine, which owing to its negative charge, attracts and holds water molecules. The resulting stiff gel contributes to the resiliency and shock-absorbing strength of joints as well as the lubricating properties demonstrated in the eye and skin.

Glycosaminoglycans are also found in vascular smooth muscle cells. They contribute to an anti-coagulated, non-stick surface. This minimizes the adhesion of oxidized LDL-cholesterol (truly lousy cholesterol) to blood vessel walls. Normal cell function is controlled by its membrane binding sites. Glucosamine is one component of the cell membrane recognition and confirmation theory that envisions the cell membrane as the absolute regulator of the immune system, healing and growth. These binding sites are composed of proteins and aminosugars.

Green Tea (Carmellia sinensis) is a plant, native to Asia whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.

Unfiltered green tea contains two active groups of chemicals known as xanthines and polyphenols or catechins.

The xanthines include caffeine, theobromine and theophylline.

These compounds are thought to suppress inflammation and may even reduce cellulite.

 

 

Catechins are the most medicinally important chemicals in green tea.Green tea polyphenols are thought to prevent cancer, atherosclerosis, delay the appearance of wrinkles and aging, promote weight loss and even prevent infection by the AIDS virus. Green tea catechins are anti-oxidants that are twenty times more powerful than Vitamin E. Consequently, green tea extracts play a vital role in protecting skin cellsl from free radical damage initiated by the rays from the sun.

There are of are four types of catechins in green tea. This accounts for one third by weight of the tea.

Green tea polyphenols (catechins) help prevent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and prostate. These phytonutrients are potent inhibitors of the enzyme tyrosine kinase, the enzyme that phosphorylates proteins, which is essential for cell mitosis and growth.

This interference by is believed to be the mechanism by which green tea prevents cancers of the gastrointestinal tract..

Green tea polyphenols are also able to cross the blood-brain barrier where they can neutralize the free radicals generated in the brain.

Preventing free radical damage delays senile dementia and other chronic brain diseases.

Green tea polyphenols may also prevent AIDS by its ability to bind to membrane receptors.

They may also prevent cancer by inhibiting certain enzymes and preventing the formation of nitrosamines.

Catechins cross the blood-brain barrier and stimulates fat oxidation.

Green tea catechins, specifically the EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) model are believed to raise core body temperature.  

This thermogenic effect is similar to the one that caffeine produces, only of a longer duration.

Increased core temperature helps lower body weight. EGCG are now being used in natural weight loss formulas.

EGCG is purported to reduce food intake, lower body weight and decrease blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels and is thought to interact with the leptin-appetite pathway to repress appetite

Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid (HA) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan.

 

Hyaluronic acid is found in skin, cartilage, and the vitreous humour of the eye.

 

HA plays an important role in connective and epithelial tissue repair.

 

HA is unique among the glycosaminoglycans in that it lacks sulfate.

Hyaluronic acid is a major component of skin, specifically, the connective tissue matrix of he dermis.

 

The dermis is the dense layer of skin that lies below the epidemis.

 

Hyaluronic acid is intricately involved in the repair of skin and its absence contributes to aging.

 

For example, when skin is exposed to excessive sun rays, it becomes inflamed or sun-burned.

 

When this occurs, the cells in the dermis stop producing hyaluronan and instead increase the rate of its degradation.

 

Hyaluronan degradation products then accumulate in the skin.

Hyaluronan is degraded by enzymes called hyaluronidases.

The degradation products are very low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, which is thought to induce the skin's inflammatory response.

 

 

HA retains a thousand times its weight in water and over holds four times as much moisture as collagen, the skin's protein molecule. Since hyaluonic acid retains so much moisture, its use can reduce the fine lines that result from dehydration

Hyaluronic acid can be injected as it is in therapy for knee degeneration, applied topically in a cream or transdermally via liposome technology.

Aloe vera is a stemless or short-stemmed plant. The gel-like pulp from its leaves have been used for thousands of years as an herbal remedy to treat wounds, skin infections and burns. The pulp contains important polysaccharides, which are useful in healing sunburn and also conatins a library of phytochemicals including mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones, anthraquinones, such as emodin, and various lectins.

Aloe vera is widely used on facial tissues because it is a very good moisturiser and can reduce skin irritation and chafing. Aloe may also speed wound healing and is useful as an antifungal agent. Aloe, when taken internally is also claimed to lower lipid and sugar levels. This is presumably due to the phytochemicals listed above.

Glutathione is a tripeptide compound with the amino acid cysteine playing the essential role. Glutathione is the body's master antioxidant. The foods that contain the most  glutathione are asparagus and avocados. Other good sources of the antioxidant include broccoli, cabbage, tomato, watermelon, strawberries and walnuts. 

Glutathione levels in the body can also be increased by supplementing the diet with n-acetylcysteine (NAC). The amino acid cysteine is used to synthesize gluthathione in the body.

Glutathione prevents damage to cells and their components by quenching reactive oxygen species (free radicals).

Glutathione contains a thiol group, a sulfur containing organic compound. The thiol group acts as a reducing agent in cells. Glutathione reduces the disulfide bonds within proteins by serving as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form of glutathione disulfide.
Once oxidized, glutathione can be reduced back to its reduced form. The ratio of its oxidized form to its reduced form is often used as a measure of cellular toxicity. An increased level of the oxidized form is indicative of oxidative stress. 

Glutathione is the major antioxidant produced by the cells. Glutathione participates directly in the neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds and maintains vitamins C and E in their reduced or active forms.

Every system in the body is affected by the glutathione system, especially the immune, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems.

Glutathione is presumed to improve the health of the liver and kidneys. Topical application of glutathione on the other hand is thought to protect the skin from UV radiation and ward of cancer involving melanocytes.

Grape seeds are rich sources of vitamin E, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, which may reduce risk of heart disease by inhibiting platelet aggregation and reducing inflammation. The library of phytonutrients contained in the seeds of grapes, like those in its skin, owe their medicinal activity to its antioxidant property.

Grapeseed oil, when applied topically to the face rejuvenates and moisturizes skin and masks or removes wrinkles.

Ceramides are a family of lipid molecules that are made up of a sphingosine and a fatty acid. Ceramides are found in high concentrations within cell maembranes.

Ceramides are one of the lipids of sphingomyelin, one of the major lipids in the lipid bilayer. 
Ceramides act as a signaling molecules involving the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death.

Ceramides are also found in the lipids of the skin and have a role in retaining water.
Ceramides are involved with water regulation because of their high capacity to prevent water loss.

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